A "traffic evolution" will come: what upgrades will 5G bring to car networking and self-driving?





The 5G era has arrived, the step towards commercial is also speeding up gradually.

2019 is regarded as the first year of the global 5G, China 5G development has also entered the sprint stage. As a new generation of mobile communications technology, the 5G will become a unified connectivity architecture to support future innovation, giving new impetus to economic growth.

With the arrival of 5G commercial, it is expected that this innovation will bring a new look to many traditional fields. For example, for the 100-year auto industry, this would mean more acceleration and breakthroughs in auto-driving and networking technology, and even more imaginative space for the industry as a whole.

 

5G interconnecting with cars: changing the direction of industrial investment

First, let's take a look at the concept of the "Internet of cars", also known as the V2X (Vehicle to everything), which is the Internet of cars and everything, including cars and cars (V2V), cars and infrastructure (V2I). Communication between cars and pedestrians (V2P) and networks (V2N). Car networking is like a Hatcheck group that includes roadside facilities such as cars, traffic lights, pedestrians and clouds. Each participant in the group can share his or her own information with other participants instantly. To realize the identification of each bother's position and driving intention, and to communicate with each other, such as the signal lamp. Information, etc., to assist in the group of vehicles to the road perception, support vehicle automation. The traditional V2X technology has been developed for a long time. As an early derivative technology of 802.11a technology, it was born in the first few years of the 21 ~ (st) century. However, the traditional V2X technology has obvious limitations. The main points are as follows:

 

First,It lacks a long-term road map for wireless technology evolution. With the increasing interconnection between vehicles, the automotive industry has embraced 4GLTE technology and made progress towards the future of 5G. The traditional technology has been separated from the future vision and development direction of the automotive industry.

Secondly,Lack of momentum to invest in traditional V2X technology. For automakers, one-off investments are not cost-effective, and traditional technology will be unsustainable over time; As far as road infrastructure is concerned, traditional V2X technologies cannot produce synergies with other widely deployed and innovative wireless technologies, making it difficult for the cash-strapped transport sector at all levels to invest in and upgrade infrastructure.

Last,The traditional V2X technology did not foresee the acceleration of the global 5G transformation from 2019 to 2020, but because of the acceleration of the global 5G technology development, the investment direction of automobile manufacturers and road infrastructure managers was changed.In view of the deficiency of traditional V2X technology and taking full advantage of the industrial scale advantage of cellular mobile communication, 3GPP, the global mobile communication standardization organization, defined C-V2X (cellular vehicle networking) technology in R14 standard version. Since the birth of C-V2X technology in 2016, most of the participants in the automotive industry have adopted C-V2X, a technology that can solve the safety and efficiency problems in an all-round way. It is the best technology that is suitable for future development and conforms to the path of global change.

The C-V2X global wireless deployment based on the 3GPP wireless standard conforms to the 5G evolution route and will take full advantage of the scale effect from the terminal and infrastructure level. C-V2X can be integrated into the in-vehicle information processing wireless module. Therefore, the problem of incremental cost of automobile manufacturers has also been solved. Road infrastructure deployment can create synergies with 5G-scale deployments, saving significant spending at all levels of government. Compared with the traditional technology, C-V2X also has the technical superiority, can provide more than 2 times the communication range and the reliability.

 

5G breakthroughs for autopilot: low delay, high reliability, high speed

At present, automatic driving technology is developed at high speed in China and the United States. By the end of 2018, the U. S. plus state government has issued an automatic driving test license to 60 enterprises, and local governments in China have also issued a test license to 24 enterprises. in the latest year's list of auto-driving competitiveness released by the well-known research firm, the company, the company in the leading position is in a single-cycle, intelligent way, i. e., the vehicle's perception of the environment and the decision to travel are done through a vehicle-mounted sensor and a computing processing unit, This is in the relatively perfect city of the city Relatively simple road or working conditions on the highway scene can make rapid progress in a short period of time.

However, relying solely on bicycle intelligence will have greater limitations, for example, there are more serious traffic facilities defects, nonstandard deployment of roads, or complex scenarios such as highways with relatively large traffic flows and faster speeds, and so on. Bicycle intelligence is also difficult to complete complex road environment perception and real-time decision-making. But with the development and application of 5G, these limitations have been broken for self-driving cars. Thanks to the deepening development of China's automotive industry chain in 5G technology and applications, it is widely believed that autopilot requires not only intelligent vehicles, but also intelligent ways to match each other in the field of autopilot research. Using 5G technology with low delay, With high reliability, high speed and large capacity, vehicle networking can not only help vehicles communicate with each other in location, speed, driving direction and driving intention, but also use roadside facilities to assist vehicles to perceive the environment. For example, vehicles may not be able to accurately judge traffic lights by using their own cameras, which may lead to violations of the rules and regulations of running a red light, but using the V2I technology of vehicle networking, Traffic lights send light signals to peripheral vehicles in a wireless manner to ensure that autonomous vehicles know exactly the status of traffic lights.

Another example is traffic optimization and pedestrian warning at crossroads. There are frequent pedestrian / bicycle-vehicle collisions on roads today, especially on left-turn vehicles, where drivers and vehicle sensors are often unable to observe pedestrians crossing the road because of the obstruction of sight. One solution is to monitor pedestrians in the intersection by installing radar and cameras at the intersection, if pedestrians are detected on and inside the zebra crossing, and pedestrians are on the route of the vehicle. Roadside facilities (RSU) can immediately notify vehicles that are about to turn or straight ahead of the detected situation and avoid the occurrence of the accident. Born.

5G and car networking technology is a necessary technical guarantee for autopilot. It is reasonable to believe that 5G technology will play an important role in the field of self-driving by choosing the right technical route of "Intelligent vehicle Wisdom" and giving full play to the advantages of 5G in the field of autopilot.

 

5G enhances self-driving perception, decision-making and execution

Auto-driving consists of three levels: perception / cognition, decision-making and execution, all of which can be enhanced by 5G mobile communication technology.

First look at the perceptual / cognitive level. Perception / awareness is to let the car and the driver know "where I am, what is around me, and if I am in danger." Therefore, the first need for high-precision positioning, for autopilot, even need sub-level positioning. The traditional satellite positioning (GNSS) can not meet the positioning accuracy required by vehicle automation, so it is necessary to use the network-aided differential positioning technology and combine with the trajectory inference technology to improve the positioning accuracy.

Take Qualm's vision-enhanced precise positioning (VEPP) technology, for example, which combines multiple automotive sensors, including GNSS (GNSS), cameras, inertial measurement unit (IMU) and wheel sensors. To provide more accurate global vehicle positioning.

In addition, from the point of view of artificial intelligence, machines can not completely replace human decision-making, and in some occasional complex scenarios, human participation in decision-making is required, that is, "man in the loop". But for self-driving vehicles, occupants may not be able to drive or participate in decision-making.

But with 5G technology, we can involve remote service center personnel in decision-making. For example, in some special scenarios, machines can't drive and get out of (discouragement), just like we call rescue centers today when a car goes down, and vehicles can use the 5G network to call remote service centers. Using the low delay and large bandwidth of 5G, the real-time images and sensor information of the field are transmitted to the professionals of the service center. In the virtual reality scenario, the professionals can control the vehicle to leave the complex road conditions remotely, and the real-time image and sensor information can be transmitted to the professionals of the service center. Until the driving system can take over the vehicle again.

 

Of course, we're not saying that only a high degree of automation like L4/L5 requires 5G technology. In fact, car networking technology can also be of great help to low-level automation centered on human driving. For example, the multiple sensing techniques mentioned above can be applied to the current vehicle, providing driver with driving assistance (ADAS), such as fore collision warning and emergency automatic braking based on the fusion of vehicle radar and V2V technology.

 

There are two problems to be solved urgently when 5G application cars are connected to each other.

At present, with the strong promotion of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the Ministry of Transportation, the 3GPP R14-based vehicle networking has basically completed pre-production technical preparations, of course, there are still some policy and technical problems that need to be solved before large-scale commercial use.

First, information security and privacy. For the public consumers, besides the convenience and road safety brought to us by the interconnection of cars, it is also more concerned about the information safety and privacy issues designed by the interconnection of cars. In order to protect the privacy of the owner and improve the security factor of the network, C-V2X designed the anonymous key system, changed the identification and information signature periodically, and needed to install hundreds or even thousands of certificates in the vehicle. Because of the problem of information security, it is urgent to work out a certificate management and distribution system, which is suitable for our country, by the cooperation of many relevant departments in our country.

In addition, in the aspect of C-V2X information security, we need to use the SM2/3 encryption algorithm which is developed by ourselves in our country. This algorithm has been widely used in banks and other systems, and has a certain industrial foundation. However, the existing chips that support the SM2/3 algorithm in China can not meet the requirements of thousands of signatures and verification per second required by C-V2X in terms of processing capacity. And most of the domestic enterprises engaged in the development of safety chips also lack experience in developing vehicle-grade products. While foreign chip manufacturers have obtained the SM2/3 algorithm from the national standard system, they are not fully aware of the authentication process involved in the national security algorithm and the related recognition. Certificate risk, therefore delay in providing product planning to support C-V2X safety specifications. Therefore, it is necessary to promote the security chip design and development at home and abroad in terms of policies and funds. It is expected that the domestic and foreign companies engaged in the design and development of security chips will come up with vehicle-grade chips with high processing power to support the national secret SM2/3 algorithm. The 3GPP R14-based C-V2X enhances self-driving vehicle awareness of the environment, providing more accurate driver assistance information for low-level autopilot. L4 / L5 collaborative decision-making required for advanced autopilot. Higher requirements for V2X communications will be required, and V2X will be required to increase bandwidth. Shorter delays and, most importantly, higher reliability (> 99%).

In March 2019, 3GPP passed the standard project, and plans to develop 5G V2X technology based on 5G new air port in version R16, utilizing the high bandwidth, low delay and high reliability capability of 5G new air port to further enhance the capability of C-V2X technology. Supporting high-level autopilot technology. The R16 version of the C-V2X standard is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2019, and it is believed that chip manufacturers will also release R16-compliant chips as soon as the standard is completed. Cooperate with the auto company to develop and test the L4/L5 high-level self-driving vehicle. Autopilot can take us from the onerous driver Liberate our journey and make our journey safer and more environmentally friendly. 5G interconnection will greatly enhance the perception of self-driving vehicles and promote early mass production of self-driving vehicles. More advanced autonomous driving requires a wide range of vehicle / road coordination, and 5G technology is an irreplaceable means of autonomous driving.

 

5G application vehicle networking, landing prospect

Although the 5G application vehicle has not been implemented until now, it is still on the way. After 3GPP released the R14 C-V2X standard in June 2017, the industry quickly started the development of C-V2X products and related testing and verification work. In September of that year, Communal released the 9150 C-V2X Chiclets based on 3GPP R14 and conducted extensive global testing based on the Chiclets.

In November 2018, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued the "regulations on the Management of 5905-5925MHz bands for Direct-connected Communications of vehicles (Intelligent Network-connected vehicles) (5905-5925MHz)", planning the dedicated frequency resources of the band common 20MHz bandwidth. Direct communication technology used in C-V2X (direct communication between car and car, car to person, car to road). At the same time, the management of related frequency, station, equipment and interference coordination is stipulated. This makes China the first country in the world to explicitly allocate dedicated frequencies for C-V2X technology. This frequency band The division completely clears up the policy uncertainty in the promotion of the car network, and will greatly promote the automobile enterprises to invest in the mass production vehicle development of C-V2X technology.

During this year's Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Ford announced that, starting in 2022, Ford will have built-in C-V2X technology into every new car and truck it sells in the United States. And recently announced that in 2021 in China to mass production of the first model with C-V2X technology.

During the World Mobile Congress in February, Geeky announced plans to launch its first mass-production models to support the 5G and C-V2X in 2021. Some domestic auto companies have also actively followed up, considering taking the lead in supporting C-V2X technology among some models produced in volume within two years. On 28 March, Minister Ciao Wei of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology attended the 2019 annual meeting of the Boa Forum for Asia, saying: The network of cars represented by self-driving will be an important application of 5G. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology is cooperating with the Ministry of Transport to actively promote the capitalization and intelligent transformation of China's highway system and make use of 5G technology to bring into play the energetically advantage of vehicles and roads.

We have reason to believe that in the next two years, in parallel with the construction of the 5G network, most cities and highways in China will use C-V2X technology to upgrade their transport infrastructure. 2020 mass-produced vehicles with C-V2X function will be produced. C-V2X technology will be the first to feel the convenience of traffic, safe driving tips and more optimized energy saving and emission reduction. 5G and AI and other emerging technologies will surely stimulate the automotive industry innovation wave, enabling the evolution of the entire automotive ecology.



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